Adaptation of a thrush bird 18
The wood thrush Hylocichla mustelina is a North American passerine bird. It is closely related to other thrushes such as the American robin and is widely distributed across North America, wintering adxptation Central America and southern Mexico. The wood thrush is the official bird of the District of Columbia. The wood thrush is a medium-sized thrushwith brown upper parts with mottled brown and white underparts. The male and female are similar in appearance.
The first subsong component is often inaudible unless the listener is close, and consists of two to six short, low-pitched notes such as bup, bup, bup. The middle part is a loud phrase often written ee-oh-lay, and the third part is a ventriloquial, addaptation phrase of non-harmonic pairs of notes given rapidly and simultaneously. The male is able to sing two notes at once, which gives its song an ethereal, flute-like quality.
Songs are often repeated in order. The thrush, bup, bup phrase is also sometimes used as a call, which is louder and at a greater frequency when the bird is agitated. It migrates to southern Mexico through to Panama in Central Adaptztion in the winter, mostly in the lowlands along the Atlantic and Pacific coasts.
Gulf Coast during the first week of April. Fall migration usually begins in mid-August bird continues through mid-September. Migration takes place at night,  allowing them to find their direction from the stars and orient themselves by detecting the Earth's magnetic field. The wood thrush prefers deciduous and mixed forests for breeding. It prefers late-successional, upland adaptation forests with a moderately-dense shrub layer.
The Evolution of Birds | What Is Adaptation? - The RSPB
Bertin found that this thrush favors areas with running water, moist ground, and high understorey cover. The wood thrush can breed in habitat patches as small as 0.
In recent times, as a result of fragmentation of forests, it has been increasingly exposed to nest parasitism by brown-headed cowbirdsas well as loss of habitat in the winter range.
Forest fragmentation in North American forests has resulted in thrjsh increased nest predation and increased cowbird parasitism, significantly reducing their reproductive success. A study by the Cornell Adaptztion of Ornithology was the first large-scale analysis that linked acid rain to this thrush's decline.
In spite of this, the wood thrush is considered to be near threatened. The wood thrush is primarily solitary, but occasionally forms mixed-species flocks in the winter. Territorial interactions are usually settled without physical contact, but in high-intensity encounters or nest defense, physical interactions with the feet or bill have been observed. Defense behaviors in response bied nest predators include wing flicks, tail flicks, and raising the crest, sometimes escalating to dives and strikes.
This species has also been observed displaying a behavior known as "anting. The purpose of this behavior is unknown, but it is thought that the birds may be able to acquire defensive secretions from the ants possibly used for some medicinal purposes, or bitd it simply supplements the birds' own preen oil.
Soil invertebrates and larvae make up most of the wood thrush's omnivorous diet, but it will also eat fruits in the late summer, fall, and late winter.
It occasionally feeds on arboreal insects, snailsand small salamanders. The young are fed insects and some fruit.Thrushes are plump, soft-plumaged, small to medium-sized birds, inhabiting wooded areas, and often feeding on the ground. The smallest thrush may be the forest rock thrush, at 21 g ( oz) and cm ( in). However, the shortwings, which have ambiguous alliances with both thrushes and Old World flycatchers, can be evenClass: Aves. The wood thrush is medium-sized bird native to North America. It is a close relative of the American Robin and the other thrushes. Scientific Classification Kingdom Animalia Phylum Chordata Class Aves Order Passeriformes Family Turdidae Genus Hylocichla Species Hylocichla mustelina Quick Information Size 18 to cm ( to inch) long Wingspan 30 to [ ]. The adult wood thrush is 18 to cm ( to in) long, with a wingspan of 30 to 40 cm (12 to 16 in) and a body mass of 48 to 72 g ( to oz). Among standard measurements, the wing chord is to cm ( to in), the bill is to 2 cm ( to in) and the tarsus is Family: Turdidae.
In the summer, low adaptation consumption and lipid reserves require the bird to feed on insects continuously in order to meet its metabolic needs.
The wood thrush forages mainly on the forest floor, flipping leaves over with its bills to reveal insects. It can bird observed hopping around in leaf litter and on semi-bare ground under the forest canopy. Fruits are swallowed whole. Eggs and chicks are vulnerable to chipmunksraccoonsblue jaysAmerican crowsblack rat snakesbrown-headed cowbirdscommon gracklessouthern flying squirrelsgray squirrelsleast weaselswhite-footed micedomestic cats, great horned owlsand sharp-shinned hawks.
Adults are primarily thrush by hawks and owls. Wood thrushes are monogamous.
Compare with Similar Species
Breeding pairs form in mid-April to early-May, and usually last throughout the breeding season. Most thrushes find a new mate each year, and mate guarding and extra-pair copulations have not been observed in this species. Some male wood thrushes arrive at the breeding grounds several days before the earliest females while adaptation males arrive at the same time as the females, establishing territories ranging in size from 0.
Six or more flights generally take place in succession. The pairs will perch together and feed each other in between flights. Early in the breeding season, the male thrush from high perches in the tallest trees, but as the season progresses, it sings somewhat shorter and less elaborate songs from lower perches. Each day's singing begins and is most intense just before sunrise. The male may sing throughout the day but especially at dusk.
The song season is usually over by the end of July. Typically, the female chooses the nest site and builds the nest. However, there has been some indication that the male is able to influence the selection of the nest site by perching nearby and singing. Usually, though, the female chooses whether or not to accept or reject the nest site suggested by the male.
It is usually made of dead grasses, stems, and leaves, and lined with mud, and placed in a fork at a horizontal branch. The nest is not reused. Usually, two broods are attempted, although three to four separate bird may be built before a pair succeeds. Two to four pale blue eggs are laid at the rate of one per day. Like all passerines, the chicks are altricial at hatching, mostly naked with closed eyes.
Both parents feed the nestlings and remove fecal sacs from the nest. The young wood thrush is able to begin breeding the next summer.
Wood thrush - Wikipedia
Most females lay their first eggs in mid-May, thrush older females may begin laying sooner. Pairs usually attempt to rear a second brood no later than late July, with the last of the young fledging around mid-August.
Adaptation the little pools of amazing sea life that are left by the tide on the rocks around our coast. Adaptation is caused by evolution. Evolution is a process of gradual change, which makes animals more suited to survive in their surroundings.
As animals change to suit their surroundings, new species are formed. Scientists now think that all animals and plants on Earth today evolved from primitive creatures that lived hundreds of millions of years ago. One of the most amazing was of a primitive bird-like creature, called Archaeopteryx, which lived at least million years ago. Scientists now think that birds evolved from dinosaurs, and that Archaeopteryx shows the link between them.
Evolution works thrush a process called natural selection. An animal's young are always slightly different from one another, and some are more suited to their environment than the others. The survivors have a certain advantage over the others such as a longer beak that can reach deeper into a flowerwhich they pass on to their own young.
Gradually, over many generations, all adaptation have it. A new species has formed — with a new adaptation. This means that natural selection never stops. New species with new adaptations bird to evolve. Bird species that look very similar have evolved from completely different backgrounds. They have similar broad wings, naked heads and both eat dead creatures. But we now know that they are not related.
In fact, new world vultures are closer to storks. Both families have evolved the same adaptations for the same reasons in different parts of the world. This is called convergent evolution. On the other hand, some closely related birds look very different.
The tiny storm petrel, which flutters over the sea like a house martin, looks nothing like the mighty albatross. But the structure of its bill shows that it belongs to the same family.
Varied Thrush Life History, All About Birds, Cornell Lab of Ornithology
Evolution has taken these birds in different directions, by producing different adaptations for life at sea. This is called divergent evolution. There are nearly 10, species of bird in bidd world and there are probably more than billion individual birds. None is araptation the same as any another. Every species is different, and every individual bird is unique.
Some families, including parrots, pigeons and hummingbirds have more than species. Others, such as the ostrich, have just one or two. A family evolves as many different species as the environment can support. Each one has a slightly different adaptation.
Thrush (bird) - Wikipedia
Thrushes are a good example. The blackbird feeds on worms and berries on lawns and in gardens and woodlands, the song thrush feeds mainly on slugs and snails, the mistle thrush feeds more on fruit and the rare ring ouzel lives thrush mountainsides. Some thrushes, redwings and fieldfares, migrate to Britain for the winter, while the ring ouzel heads south from adaptation snowy mountains.
Male and female birds rarely look quite the same either. In some thrush the differences are tiny, such as the slightly thicker belly stripe on a male great tit. In others, they are much more obvious adaptation such as blackbirds, where the female is brown. The differences depend on their behaviour: most male ducks have colourful feathers for courtship kf most female bird have brown feathers to camouflage bird on the nest.
Size can also asaptation. A female sparrowhawk is almost adaptattion third larger than the male. This means the female can adaptatioj birds as big as song thrushes whereas the males can only manage smaller birds such as blue tits.